Compose a function with itself n times

Today I faced this question from a tweet by Sash Zats: how does one call a function n times, using as a parameter for each call the result of the previous call?

Sure, assuming we want to call a function 5 times, one might just do this:

///Adds 5 to a number
func addFive(to number: Int) -> Int {
return number + 5

let result = addFive(to: addFive(to: addFive(to: addFive(to: addFive(to: 2)))))
print(result) //27

But is that what we really want to write?

I did some research, then found a response from Chris Eidhof, which mentioned a type called UnfoldSequence.

Turns out, the Standard Library has a function called sequence(first:next:) that does just that. From the documentation:

Returns a sequence formed from first and repeated lazy applications of next.

For completeness, here’s the entire function signature:

/// - Parameter first: The first element to be returned from the sequence.
/// - Parameter next: A closure that accepts the previous sequence element and
/// returns the next element.
/// - Returns: A sequence that starts with `first` and continues with every
/// value returned by passing the previous element to `next`.
public func sequence<T>(first: T, next: @escaping (T) -> T?) -> UnfoldFirstSequence<T>

But we need something more right? We need to control the number of times the function needs to be called. We don’t want to clutter the call site with a bunch of calls to next().

So I went one step further and wrote this little function that does just what we need:

/// Calls a function n times passing the result of each call into the next call.
func call<T>(_ function: @escaping (T) -> T?, initialInput: T, repetitions: Int) -> T? {
var seq = sequence(first: initialInput, next: function)

var result: T?

//Doing it once more avoids
for _ in 0..<(repetitions + 1) {
result =

return result

Please note that we call next() n+1 times because otherwise the first call would result in the initial input being the output.

We’ve seen how very little bit of work and some help from the Standard Library can make our life easier. Let’s see the final result!

let manualResult = addFive(to: addFive(to: addFive(to: addFive(to: addFive(to: 2)))))

let functionResult = call(addFive(to:), initialInput: 2, repetitions: 5)

You can find the complete code in this gist.

Hope you find it helpful! :)

iOS Developer,  Apple Developer Academy Graduate, Computer Engineering Student. Passionate about learning.